Saturday, December 15, 2007
The history of Carnatic music can be studied based on three major periods of development, namely, Ancient, Medieval and Modern. Let's now look into the finer details of each.
THE ANCIENT PERIOD (Vedic period - 4th Century AD)
This was the vital period in the history of Indian music. During this period there is no mention of the term, Carnatic music, in any of the sources, but there is sufficient reason to believe that this period was crucial to the original development of Carnatic music. Some important references are cited here:
* Of the four Vedas, Rig Veda (hymns) was first recited in a monotone known as archika, which later developed into the two toned chant (gatika). This was subsequently replaced by a three-toned chant, samika, which had a main tone and two accents, one higher and one lower. Sama Veda is considered as the main source for the development of Indian music and the first full scale with seven notes in the descending order are seen in the rendering, even to this day. The melody is close to the scale of the raga, Kharaharapriya (22nd Melakarta) or Natakapriya (10th Melakarta).
* Several references to music of musical instruments are seen in the Vedas.
* One of the earliest references to musical theory is found in the Rik Pratisakya (around 400BC), which mentions the origin of seven notes from the three notes.
* Upanishads (the concluding part of Vedas), containing the essence of Vedas (100 BC - 300 BC), mention the musical notes and gives other musical references. Musical instruments like the Vina and Dundubhi are mentioned in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
* The two great epics, Ramayana (circa 40 BC) and Mahabharata, also have several musical references.
* There is also a mention of Gandharvas [(demi-gods) (600 - 500 BC)], who were exceptionally versatile in music. Bharata in his Natyasastra, also acknowledges saying that music belonged to the Gandharvas.
Bharata's Natyasastra (The 2nd - 4th century AD)
This is the earliest treatise to extensively elaborate on the science of music and dance. Music is dealt only partly in this treatise. Yet, various aspects like the ancient melodies (Jaatis) which are the archetypes of Ragas, their characteristic features, structure and the classification of the ancient instruments have been made in this work. The notes (swaras), their varieties, combination (varnas) and other such aspects are also elaborately described.
Bharata has given the fundamentals of music as comprising Swara, Tala and Pada. The music till Bharata’s period was known as Marga (literally meaning way).
In the ancient period, the native Dravidians of the south had their own style, which is generally called Tamil music, owing to the native regional language of the area. The Sangam literature till 3rd AD, in particular, has many references to this style. Works like Silappadikaram of Ilango Adigal, and its commentaries, describe the logical derivations of the important scales through the modal shift of tonic. The Tamil names of these notes have also been mentioned. Other works like Tolkappiam, Pattupattu, etc. also give musical references. Some of these descriptions and references correspond to contemporary Carnatic music concepts. (Also see Tamil music).
MEDIEVAL PERIOD (5th - 16th Century AD)
During this period, many important musical concepts evolved in clear terms and in this period, more care was taken to put into record, some of the important musical developments by several music scholars, to enable us to have proper historical links. Several musical composers and luminaries have also lived during this period.
* The work of Matanga (6th - 7th Century A.D.), Brihaddesi, is the first to mention the word, Raga. This text also gives the names of the then popular Ragas, with their suitable structures, and a basic classification system. The other notable feature during that period was the gradual development of the art of music as an independent form, breaking away from being overly dependent on forms of dance and drama.
* The Kudimiyanmalai inscriptions in a cave, near Pudukottai (Tamilnadu), has an array of musical diction (notation) of South Indian music in the 7th century AD. The Tevarams (6th - 9th century AD), songs in praise of Lord Siva, used more than 20 scales with Tamil names, which were equivalent to the present system of Carnatic music. Many of these Tevarams are still rendered as musical pieces in concerts. This corpus, along with the Divya Prabandham (compositions of the Vaishnavite Azhwars, 6th - 8th century AD), have been a significant contribution of the Tamil speaking region to Carnatic music.
* The Tiruppugazh of Arunagirinathar, who lived around the 15th century, is another inspiring Tamil work which significantly affected Carnatic music. This has complex rhythmic meters, which remain unique and unsurpassed in their grandeur.
* The Gita Govinda of Jayadeva (12th century) is a monumental work of the medieval period in Sanskrit, consisting of 24 songs, each set to a particular Raga. The rhythmic meter is determined by the meter of the verse. These were, probably, the earliest examples close to the regular musical compositions and are called Ashtapadis (ashta meaning eight and padi meaning foot). These are popular throughout India even today, though the original tunes are lost. Contemporary musicians from both the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions have set these songs to music independently.
An important musical treatise was written by Sarngadeva (1210-1247). This work contains five thousand couplets in Sanskrit written in nine chapters, comprehensively covering Swaras, Ragas, Prabandhas (musical form of this period), Tala-vadyas (percussion instruments), Gamakas (ornamentations) and other such aspects. This work establishes the complete growth of Indian music from the period of the Natya Sastra (2nd century) to the 13th century. This work stands out particularly as a link between the two new systems that gradually split and evolved separately after his period, namely, the Hindustani music and Carnatic music. The music between the period of Brihaddesi and the Sangeeta Ratnakara was known as the Desi system.
Sarngadeva’s work inspired many later scholars who wrote musicological treatises. The Sangeeta Sara, attributed to Vidyaranya (1320-1380) was the first to classify ragas as Melas (Parent) and Janya ragas. After this work, there seems to have been a lull in the theoretical development for almost two centuries. Ramamatya wrote his treatise, Swaramela Kalanidhi, in the 16th century. The clear exposition of Mela, Raga and Vina technique must be accredited to him. His effort served as a firm and fitting foundation to the growth of the modern music system and may be considered as the milestone in the scientific development of our music.
This period gradually traces the evolution from Gandharvagana forms like Dhruvagana of Bharata’s period, through the different kinds of Prabandhas, to the present day forms. Several important forms were composed during this period - Tevaram, Divyaprabandham, Tiruppavai (is a part of Divyaprabandham), Ashtapadis, Padams, Kritis, Gitams, apart from the Abhyasa gana, Alankara and Swaravalis for beginners.
Tallapakkam Annamacharya (1425 - 1503 AD), composed in a new form called Kriti, having three sections, namely the Pallavi, Anupallavi and Charanam. This pattern became widely accepted and was popularised by later composers, in particular, the Trinity. This stands out as an outstanding contribution of Annamacharya to the practical side of our music. He is credited to have composed about thirty two thousand compositions of which around twelve thousand have been traced and some of these have been still preserved in copper plates. The Kritis were not as complicated as the earlier Prabandha forms.
Purandaradasa (1484 - 1564 AD) is known as the Sangeeta Pitamaha (the grandfather of Carnatic music). A prolific composer, he laid the foundation for the systematic learning of the system and he is credited to have formulated the swara exercises for practice, apart from composing simple songs, Gitams, and a number of compositions (Kritis) with high philosophical import.
In short, during the medieval period, one can say that Carnatic music gradually attained its individuality built over a historically strong foundation. In particular, after the 13th century, no major treatise is seen from the North. Tanjavur and Vijayanagara emerged as the major seats of Carnatic music, with a number of classic monumental works being produced in both the theoretical and practical aspects of music
MODERN PERIOD (17th century to present day)
The 17th century can be considered as a golden age of Carnatic music. It marks several important milestones of Carnatic music in diversified angles, thus, enriching this traditional art form, while preserving the past glories. Some of the most important developments in both Lakshana (theoretical) and Lakshya (practical) aspects took place during this period.
The well structured 72 Melakarta scheme was formulated by Venkatamakhi in his treatise Chaturdandi Prakasika in 1660 AD. This scheme is the proud heritage of our music, and is not simply of academic interest, but also has immense practical value to all musicians, musicologists and students. Other important treatises on music written during this period are the Sangeeta Saramrita of Tulaja (1729 - 1735 AD), Sangeeta Sudha of Govinda Dikshita and the Sangraha Choodamani of Govinda (1750 A.D).
By the end of the 19th century, notational schemes were developed, for written representation of musical compositions. These were published in works like Subbarama Dikshitar’s Sangeeta Sampradaya Pradarsini in Telugu and Manikka Mudaliar’s Tamil work, Sangeeta Chandrikai. A M Chinnasami Mudaliar published south Indian music compositions written in western staff notation. These early pioneers in recent times have paved the way for a research-oriented understanding of this practical art form.
While the theoretical works were trying to keep pace with the practical music, the practical music itself was evolving continuously and a number of luminaries have made a tremendous impact on refinement of this art form, to keep it fresh and alive.
In the 18th century, within a short period from 1763 - 1775 AD, were born the three great composers of Carnatic music, who were later to be celebrated as the Musical Trinity (Trimurti) - Syama Sastri (1762 - 1827) Tyagaraja (1767-1847) and Muthuswami Dikshitar (1776-1835). All of them combined their immense knowledge, deep spirituality and profound traditional musicianship with an amazing sense of creativity and innovative spirit. This has made their contribution to Carnatic music invaluable. The art of musical composition was elevated to great heights at their hands. It can confidently be asserted that all later composers have tried to live up to the standards set by these three bright stars. Other great composers who have contributed to the vast repertoire of Carnatic music compositions include Swati Tirunal (1813-1847), Vina Kuppayyar, Subbaraya Sastri, Gopalakrishna Bharati, Ghanam Krishna Iyer, Patnam Subramanya Iyer, Koteeswara Iyer, Muthaiah Bhagavatar, Mysore Vasudevachar and Papanasam Sivan. (Also see Galaxy of Composers)
The 72 Melakarta scheme was responsible for the transformation in the Raga system of Carnatic music. Several new Ragas came into existence and were popularised by means of compositions tuned by the Trinity of composers along with others who followed the 72 Melakarta scheme. Many different kinds of musical compositions developed, having different structural arrangements (musical forms). These include the Varnam, Kriti, Padam, Javali, Tillana, Swarajati and other varieties. These forms have continued to remain popular in the 20th century.
Till the end of the 19th century, the patronage of Carnatic music and musicians was mostly limited to the major temples and royal courts, as also a few rich landowners, who arranged concerts for various events. In the 20th century, the patronage has taken a different shape, with the advent of a number of organisations (Sabhas) and corporate sponsors who have brought a more professional outlook to this traditional art-form. As a result, Carnatic music is now heard in all major Indian cities, as also in major centers in Asia, Europe and America.
The learning and teaching processes have also adopted themselves to the changes in the living style, over the years. The traditional Gurukula system has given way to an institutional system of training in the 20th century. Several good musicians have taken to teaching as their profession. Modern educational tools have been pressed into service, with the growth of recording technology. From analog tape recorders to state of the art computers and internet connections are being put to use in imparting musical education worldwide.
The written musical notation system has undergone several changes over the years and has been used as a reference material for learning. Research oriented study and documentation of musical forms have also increased over the years. A number of books in different languages, by musicians and musicologists, have also been useful to understand the different concepts of this system of music. The involvement of mass media and communications has been a vital factor in the increase in interest of the unexposed, to this traditional art form. Through all this change, Carnatic music has not only gained new vigour, but has also retained its freshness within the traditional framework of this system.
Tuesday, August 21, 2007
G.N. Baalasubramaniam - (1910-1965) It was festival in the Kapaleeswarar temple, Mylapore, Madras. The top artiste to give the concert of the day did not turn up and the temple authorities were in a quandry. They decided upon the substitute and proceeded to meet G.V.Narayanaswamy Ayyar, Head Master, Hindu High School, Triplicane to depute his young son, Balasubramaniam to take the concert. Narayanaswamy Ayyar could not comprehend the request and was as confounded as Dasaratha was when sage Viswamitra wanted him to depute his son Rama. The authorities pointed out that Ariyakudi Ramanuja Ayyangar shot into fame only in similar circumstances by ascending the dias when the senior Vidwan Madurai Pushpavanam failed to turn up and had never an occassion to look back.
The parallel thrilled the ear of the father. He acceded and the son gave the concert, a memorable debut in which his guru Madurai Subramaniam and Pudukottai Vakil K.Rajamani accompanied on violin and mridangam. Fame and glory crowned G.N.Balasubramaniam quite soon even as the eastern sun in summer shoots into the sky and spreads its floodlight with dynamic speed and no twilight. Balasubramaniam was born on January 6, 1910 at Gudalur in Mayiladuthurai taluk. He studied in the Wesley College while learning music under his father, a disciple of Karur Chinnaswamy Ayyar and under Madurai Subramania Ayyar. He obtained his B.A. (Hons.) in 1929.
GNB, as he was popularly known, was a top vocalist of repute in a period which had seen fairly a large number of top-ranking musicians. His bracing, resonant and impressive voice and his special style rich with brisk brikas and pleasing delivery of kritis was a satisfying and thrilling experience to the vast concourse of admirers. His unique style, regulated tempo and masterly delivery were the delights of the audience. His melifluous voice would traverse the three octaves and the three 'kalas' with ease. His brikas were infectious and he kept his ears and mind open to receive what was best in other musicians. He had high respect for Ariyakudi Ramanuja Ayyangar, the senior artiste of eminence. He had a partiality for Todi, Kalyani and Kamboji and for Andolika, Nalinakanti, Vasantabairavi, Jothiswarupini, etc. His disciple, Trichur V.Ramachandran states that his master's style was essentially of a madhyamakala which sustained the interest of the audience. His command of ragalakshanas was amazing revealing the quintessence of the ragas at the very outset. His singing was crisp and 'sangatis' measured.
GNB was one of the prominent composers of recent decades. Out of his 250 compositions in sanskrit, Telugu and Tamil in traditional and his own invented ragas like Chandrahasita, Sivasakti, Amrita Behag, etc., sixty had been published. A gentleman with humility as he was, he would not sing his own compositions in concerts. His respect for values was prodigious. He would return the nominal honoraria he got from the Music Academy as donation. A further feature of his concerts was that he would review the performances of his accompanists and his own. His joy would be immense at the excellence of others. He had a soft heart for rising artistes. His anxiety to satisfy the susceptibilities of the audience was immense.
Even as a boy, he had taken part in musical and dramatic activities in the Hindu High School which he joined in the sixth standard. Later he took the lead role of Dushyant in the famous Tamil film 'Sakuntala' in which another great musician, M.S.Subbulakshmi was the heroine. He had played the role of 'Narada' in the films Bhama Vijayam and Sathi Anasuya. Udayanan, Vasavadatha is another film in which he had acted. He was also pleased with the rendition of Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan that he became an ardent devotee of Khan.
Before he actually made his mark as an vocalist, Mani got a chance to practice to the accompaniment of mridangam. This helped him a lot and taught him many useful bits about mridangam technique which he could make use of in his concert.
Very many of the earlier performances of the few early years were at some friends’ house parties, college functions etc. A performance was arranged by one of his admirers a well-wisher in Theosophical Society, Adyar under the world famous Banyan Tree (which has been there for centuries and ever green) Srimathi Rukmani Devi Arundale was the patroness of the occasion. Her appreciation and applause were noticed by the press representatives present on the occasion and they gave a glowing report of the concert in the next day dailies and that meant G N Balasubramaniam had arrived and the road to name, fame and fortune were open to him.
He could produce super fast gamakam laden sangathis with strength and weight and with great imagination. But,in such a voice of his, running at so fast a speed the effects of Brighas, twists and turns would come in quick succession that most of the audience, the lay audiences failed to appreciate and felt restless, those with a musical ear, sure knew some of the nuances but this is loss to the lay audience, of course, and also a loss to the musician that his great achievements pass unnoticed.
So, Mani,to overcome this, in coming years had restricted the speed, ideally suited to his voice at the same time easily followed by the audience. Thus, his style of Raga elaboration, rendering of standard kritis in the classic traditions and apt swaraprasthana endeared him to the average music hall audience as well as to the knowledgeable musically trained critical audience of his time.
He had taught and groomed during his active years number of his disciples to reach the top grade and among them are Radha Jayalakshmi, M. L. Vasant hakumari, Trichur V. Ramachandran, S.Kalyanaraman.
Mani was persuaded by his friends and admirers to act in a film called "Bhama Vijayam". Later he acted with the celebrated musician M. S. Subbalakshmi in Sakunthala as Dushyantha.
Apart from being a great vocalist, GNB also composed sevaral krithis. Unfortunately his life was cut short and he pass away in the prime of his musicianship at the age of just 55.
Thursday, August 16, 2007
Jayachamaraja Wodeyar was one of the rare Kings who was also an important musicologist and composer. Perhaps he was following the example set by Travancore king - composer Swati Tirunal and the last Mughal emperor - ghazal poet Bahadur Shah Zafar .
Jayachamaraja Wodeyar was born in Mysore on 18th July, 1919 as the son of Kanteerava Narasimharaja Wodeyar. He received traing from ashtana vidhwans in all arts and sciences. Mysore kings were great patrons of art and music. They had in their court great musicians from all over India, both Carnatic and Hindustani.
Jayachamaraja Wodeyar ascended to the throne in 1940, after the death of Chamaraja Wodeyar IV and ruled till 1950, when he handed over the state to the Indian republic, ending 550 years of Wodeyar rule. But, he continued to be the constitutional head of Mysore state as the Raja Pramukh (1950-56), till the post was abolished. He was then the first governor of Mysore state (1956-65) and also Madras state (1964-67).
As a great patron of music, he had several artists in his court - Tiger VaradachariarMysore Vasudevachar, Muthaiah Bhagavathar, Gotuvadyam Narayana Iyengar and Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar. Jayachamaraja Wodeyar composed about 90 krithi-s in Sanskrit, some in rare raaga-s like Bhogavasanta, Durvangi. He had great interest in western music too. He was the recipient of D.Lit from Queensland University, Australia, Doctor of Law from Banaras University, and D.Lit from Annamalai University. He was honorary Fellow of Trinity College of Music, London, in the year 1945.Mudra: Shrividhya
Genre Carnatic: Krithi, Varna
|Languages used: ||Sanskrit|
|Devi Jadambika||Vasantha Bhairavi||Khanda Jhampa||Krithi|
|Devi Sri Meenakshi||Chakravakam||Triputa||Krithi|
|Kamakshi pahi mam||Shivakambodi||Khanda Triputa||Krithi|
|Matanga kanyam||Sudha Thodi||Khanda Triputa||Krithi|
|Neelakantam Mahadevam||Purvikalyani||Misra Triputa||Krithi|
|Pahimam Sitarama||Hindola Desika||Adi||Krithi|
|Pahimam Sri||Jayasamavardhani||Khanda Triputa||Krithi|
|Pahimam Sri Parameswari||Hindola Durbar||Rupaka||Krithi|
|Saraswathim bhagavathim||Hamsavinodhini||Khanda Chapu||Krithi|
|Sri Chakrapurvasini||Sudha Lalitha||Adi||Krithi|
|Sri Jalandhara masrayamyaham||Gambhiranatta||Adi||Krithi|
|Sri vidya lalitham||Nadabrahma||Adi||Krithi|
|Sri Vidyamodini||Kokilabhashini||Tisra Triputa||Krithi|
|Sri Vidyapati||Lalitha Panchamam||Adi||Krithi|
|Srilalitham maha||Nagadhvani||Khanda Triputa||Krithi|
Papanasam Shivan is the most important Carnatic Composer in Tamil. He has composed over two thousand songs in seventy five raaga-s. He is known as Tamil Thyagaraja.
Papanasam Shivan was born in 1890 in Polaham, Tanjavur district. His real name was Polagam Ramaiah. His father passed away very early, forcing his mother to move to Thiruvananthapuram. Papanasam Shivan studied Sanskrit at Maharajah's college. His musical training was mostly informal. He was guided and influenced by Neelakanta Sivan and Konerirajapuram Vaidyanatha Iyer. The limited formal training he had was from Samba Bhagavatar and Mahadeva Bhagavatar. He also never had any formal training in Tamil.
He was a teacher at Kalakshetra for sometime. During that time he got a big break and started working for the Tamil music indutry. About 800 of his compositions would be for the film industry. He is perhaps the only Carnatic composer to have so extensively worked for the film industry. Papanasam Shivan's carnatic compositions were mostly spontaneous and noted down by others. His compositions were mostly in Tamil, even though he has some Sanskrit compositions. In 1972 he was awarded, belatedly, Sangeetha Kalanidhi by Madras Music academy.
|Mudra: Ramadasan |
|Genre Carnatic: Krithi, Varna, Thillana|
|Languages used: Tamil, Sanskrit || |
aDimaiyin uLLa (kaNNigaL)
amalE amarargaL (bhajan)
ambA un mEl
ambA un pAdam
Ananda naTamADum ayyan
ANDavan anbE shakti
bAlakrSNa mAm pAhi
bhArata puNya bhUmi
bhUmiyil mAniDa (kaNNigaL)
dhIm tarana (tillAnA)
ellAm avan sheyal
Ini oru kaNam
jaya jaya guhA
jyOti mayamAna (kaNNIgaL)
bEgaDa-Adi (2 kaLai)-krithi
kAl mAri ADum
kaNNan madhura idazhai
kaNNE en kaNmaiyE
kapAli karuNai nidhi
kApAli karuNai nilavu
kSIra sAgara shAyi
mangaLa nAyaki maDa
mangaLa nAyaki malaraDi
mAtA innum vAtA
muruganai nI anudinamum
naTarAjan un tiru
nI aruL puriya
nI inda mAyam (padavarNam)
nin caraNa malarE
nityAnandam aLikkum (kaNNigaL)
O shiva param
OhO en tOzhargaL
padmanAbha mAm pAhi
pArulagil uzhanru (kaNNigaL)
rAdhA mukha kamala
rAma nAma amrta
shankaranai paNI manamE
shAradE vINA vAdana
shendil vaLar (kaNNigaL)
shrI harE krSNa
shrI harE nArAyaNa
shrI rAma jayamangaLam
shrI rAma nAma
svAmi nAn unran (varNam)
svAmi nI (padavarNam)
svAmi unnai (varNam)
Arabhi-Adi (2 kaLai)-krithi
svAmi unran (varNam)
tanjam enrAlE (varNam)
un pAdam aladu
un padam nambina
unai allAl vErE
vA vA mativadanE
vAna inbamum peridO
vEnkaTaramaNA un tiru
Dr. Harikesanallur Muthaiah Bhagavathar is one of the most important post-trinity composers and an important vocalist as well.
Muthaiah Bhagavathar was born to Lingam Iyer and Anamdam in 1877. After the early death of his father, he was brought up by his maternal uncle Lakshamana Suri of Harikesanallur, who taught his Sanskrit, Vedas and music. He got further musical training from Sambasiva Iyer and his son T. S. Sabesa Iyer, who belonged to the Thyagaraja shishya parampara.
As a vocalist, his big break came when in 1887 he sang before Maharaja Mulam Thirunal of Travancore who honoured him as a court musician. This established him as one of the front ranking musicians of the time. Later he started giving Harikatha performances, for which he earned the name Bhagavathar. This was the time he started composing, which he would use in his Harikatha-s.
The next phase of his life was as a court musician in Mysore, from 1927. Most of his compositions were from this period. Initially he composed mostly in Madhyakala, like Shri Tyagaraja. After 1931, he was influenced by Muthuswamy Dikshitar compositions and started compoing in vilambita kala. In 1936, he was again invited by Maharani Sethu Parvathi of Travancore and he spent several years there. during that time, one of his major contributions was popularising Swati Tirunal compositions. He was also the first prinicipal of "Swathi Thirunal Academy of Music" there.
Apart from being a vocalist and composer, Muthaiah Bhagavathar was also a learned musicologist. He was actively involved in the Annual Conference of Experts conducted by The Music Academy of Madras. In 1930 he was awarded the Sangeetha Kalanidhi by the academy. He also wrote a book on the science of music, Sangeetha Kalpa Dhruma, for which he was awarded Degree of Doctorate in 1943 by the Travancore state.
Teachers & Influences:M. Lakshamana Suri, Sambasiva Iyer, T. S. Sabesa Iyer
|Languages used: ||Telugu, Sanskrit|
Genre Carnatic: Krithi
|Ajam haram Ambikavanam||Nilambari||Adi||Krithi|
|Amba mahavani||Saraswati Manohari||Khanda Chapu||Krithi|
|Apavarga pradam asraye||Pasupatipriya||Adi||Krithi|
|Astamurthim sishtamurthim||Gaulipantu||Misra Chapu||Krithi|
|Bale paripahi sahu||Begada||Rupaka||Krithi|
|Balochanam bhaga||Saurashtram||Misra Chapu||Krithi|
|Balumo samayannu||Sahana||Khanda Chapu||Varnam|
|Bhakthavalsala paramesvara||Karnataka Bihag||Rupaka||Krithi|
|Bhargam pasupatim||Jingla||Misra Chapu||Krithi|
|Bhutha pataye namo||Nagasvaravali||Adi||Krithi|
|Bindupeetha kritavase||Huseni||Misra Chapu||Krithi|
|Chakresi pradeepa sri||Chakrapradeepta||Adi||Krithi|
|Dandina Sri Chandikambe||Salaga Bhairavi||Adi||Krithi|
|Devi Gaurininna||Gaurimanohari||Khanda Chapu||Krithi|
|Devi Sri Mahalakshmi||Harinarayani||Adi||Krithi|
|Gamanatham bhaje||Panchamam||Misra Chapu||Krithi|
|Gamganapathe namo nama||Hamsadhwani||Rupaka||Krithi|
|Ganesha skanda janani||Nagabhushani||Rupaka||Krithi|
|Girija deviya bhajisetho||Veenadhari||Adi||Krithi|
|Girisam mahesham||Kaanada||Misra Chapu||Krithi|
|Ithi vela nanne||Kokilabhashini||Rupaka||Krithi|
|Jaya jaya basha||Sudha Seemanthini||Adi||Krithi|
|Kala ratri svaroopini||Urmika/Sudha||Adi||Krithi|
|Kandara mandala madhyaye||Purnachandrika||Adi||Krithi|
|Kapalinam vande||Hindustani Kapi||Misra Chapu||Krithi|
|Kausamba vasanopathe||Karnataka Kapi||Chapu||Krithi|
|Lambodara sodara||Mecha Kalyani||Eka||Krithi|
|Lambodhara Mahaganesa||Navarasa Kannada||Misra Chapu||Krithi|
|Mavoor valar maharani||Jonpuri||Adi||Krithi|
|Mrithuynjayam mridam||Ramapriya||Khanda Chapu||Krithi|
|Mula prakrithi rupe||Saveri||Adi||Krithi|
|Muruganukku oeru||Mecha Kalyani||Adi||Krithi|
|Na punyamu gada||Keeravani||Adi||Krithi|
|Nava lavanya rupadhaye||Hindolam||Rupaka||Krithi|
|Ni padame gathiyanu||Bhairavi||Adi||Krithi|
|Ninnu nammi nanu||Abhogi||Eka||Krithi|
|Parasu hasthaya||Navarasa Kannada||Rupaka||Krithi|
|Pasupathi padasevaname||Mecha Kalyani||Adi||Krithi|
|Pinakine maha prabhave||Brindavanasaranga||d||Krithi|
|Sahasra sirsha||Sudha Lalitha||Jhampa||Krithi|
|Sankara gangadhara||Sudha Saveri||Adi||Krithi|
|Sarasakshi ni||Mecha Kalyani||Ata||Krithi|
|Sarva mangala rupadhye||Paras||Misra Chapu||Krithi|
|Sathvikam sankaram||Amritavarshini||Khanda Chapu||Krithi|
|Siva mahasena janaka||Vasantha||Khanda Chapu||Krithi|
|Siva siva sambho||Mecha Kalyani||Adi||Krithi|
|Sivam vrishbharudram||Mohanakalyani||Khanda Chapu||Krithi|
|Sri bhavamchinmayam||Garudadhwani||Misra Chapu||Krithi|
|Sri mahabala saila||Sudha Saveri||Adi||Varnam|
|Sri Raghuvara chinmaya||Nayaki||Adi||Krithi|
|Sri Raja Raja varade||Saurashtram||Rupaka||Krithi|
|Sri Rama kodandarama||Bhairavi||Misra Chapu||Krithi|
|Sri Sambasiva sadguru||Gurupriya||Khanda Chapu||Krithi|
|Sri Shuba Devi||Jaganmohini||Rupaka||Krithi|
|Sri Sive jaya vaibhave||Abhogi||Adi||Krithi|
|Sri trilokesam||Saveri||Khanda Chapu||Krithi|
|Sri Virupaksha||Gauri||Khanda Chapu||Krithi|
|Srikantha dayanidhe||Salaga Bhairavi||Rupaka||Krithi|
|Srimad Simhasaneswari||Sudha Saveri||Adi||Krithi|
|Sukshmathanum||Hindola Vasantha||Khanda Chapu||Krithi|
|Thodu nida nive||Punnagavarali||Adi||Krithi|
|Thom tha thom||Kaanada||Adi||Thillana|
|Tripuranthaka deva||Hindusthani Behag||Adi||Krithi|
|Urraya Avyak taya||Dharmavathi||Rupaka||Krithi|
|Vani nityakalyani||Saraswati Manohari||Adi||Krithi|
Koteeswara Iyer is an important post-trinity composer, known for his many krithi-s in Vivadhi Raaga-s.
Koteeswara Iyer was born into a music famly. His grand father was the famous poet and composer Kavikunjara Bharati, a contemporary of the trinity. Koteeswara Iyer was initially trained by his grand father. Later he was trained by Ramnad Sreenivasa Iyengar and then by Patnam Subramania Iyer. Koteeswara Iyer's mudra, Kavi Kunjaradasan, shows his respect for his grand father, Kavikunjara Bharati.
Koteeswara Iyer penned over 200 compositions. He also composed a krithi in each of the 72 mela-s and published them in his book Kandha Gaanamritham. But he is well known for his Vivaadi raaga krith-s like Mohanakara (Neethimathi), Ma madhura sarasa (Ganamurthi) and Singara Kumari (Varunapriya). Famous vocalist S. Rajam is one of the artists who has sung a lot of Koteeswara Iyer krithi-s and popularized them
Teachers & Influences: Patnam Subramanya Iyer, Ramnad Sreenivasa Iyengar
Mudra: Kavi Kunjaradasan
Genre Carnatic: Krithi
Languages used: Tamil, Telugu
Adum azhaginile Kosalam Adi Krithi
Alagade Hatakambari Adi Krithi
Amboruha padame Natabhairavi Rupaka Krithi
Ananda rakshaka Jhalavarali Adi Krithi
Andharanga bhakthi Shadvidhamargini Adi Krithi
Anjaade Pavani Misra Chapu Krithi
Appa Muruga Divyamani Adi Krithi
Appane kapali HanumaThodi Rupaka Krithi
Arul shaiya Rasikapriya Adi Krithi
Ayyane atkol Kambhoji Triputa Krithi
Dasanena Gukasena Vanaspathi Adi Krithi
En maname Namanarayani Adi Krithi
Enai alayya Sankarabharanam Adi Krithi
Ganamudham Salagam Adi Krithi
Ganasudhaapanamu Jyotisvarupini Misra Chapu Krithi
Ghananayadesika Rishabhapriya Adi Krithi
Gitamudame Madhyamavathi Adi Krithi
Iha para sukha Suvarnangi Rupaka Krithi
Vachaspathi Rupaka Krithi
Isan Kanakasabhesan Begada Adi Krithi
Ka guha Shanmukha Kosalam Rupaka Krithi
Kaana kankodi vendum Chakravakam Rupaka Krithi
Kada bhakthachintamani Dharmavathi Misra Chapu Krithi
Kaikuda Latangi Jhampa Krithi
maname Ragavardhini Rupaka Krithi
Kali teera vandarul HanumaThodi Misra Chapu Krithi
Kanaka Mayura Jalarnavam Adi Krithi
Kanakangaka Kanakangi Adi Krithi
Kanakavela karunalavela Sri Adi Krithi
Kandaga karpaga taruve Syamalangi Misra Chapu Krithi
Kanjam konjam Suryakantham Rupaka Krithi
Kanparaiyya Kharaharapriya Rupaka Krithi
Karunai Kadale Dhenuka Adi Krithi
Karvaya kanda Dhavalambari Rupaka Krithi
Ma madhura sarasa Ganamurthi Adi Krithi
Mahaganapathe Kaanada Adi Krithi
Malaiyate maname Sarasangi Rupaka Krithi
Manade maravade Hemavathi Rupaka Krithi
Mane moham Saveri Adi Varnam
Mangalam mayitvaham Surutti Adi Krithi
Manojanaimaruganai Gaula Adi Krithi
Mohanakara Neethimathi Rupaka Krithi
Nada nilai Gayakapriya Jhampa Krithi
Nadanuasantanaa Vagadheeswari Adi Krithi
Nadasukham Kanthamani Adi Krithi
Nalagude Rupavathi Adi Krithi
Nambinen Aiyya Vakulabharanam Adi Krithi
Nan enna seyven Mayamalavagaula Adi Krithi
Nayen unaye Naganandini Adi Krithi
Neeye gati en thaye Harikamboji Adi Krithi
Ni than appa Charukesi Adi Krithi
Nijabhaktim Manavathi Rupaka Krithi
Ninnaikanome Gangeyabhushani Rupaka Krithi
Paramananda Vishwambhari Rupaka Krithi
Sulini Adi Krithi Parayunul Gaurimanohari Adi Krithi
Rama ravikulasoma Bhairavi Adi Krithi
Ranjitha kavi Sudha Saveri Rupaka Krithi
Sadanamndame Mecha Kalyani Adi Krithi
Sadananda Raghupriya Rupaka Krithi
Samaganalola Chitrambari Misra Chapu Krithi
Sambhosankara Mecha Kalyani Triputa Krithi
Sami Dikshita Devamanohari Rupaka Krithi
Sami ide nallsamayam Navaneetham Rupaka Krithi
Sami sadamuda Ramapriya Adi Krithi
Samidesamayam Kedaragaula Rupaka Krithi
Sanbho sadasiva Yagapriya Adi Krithi
Shentiruvelan Bhavapriya Adi Krithi
Singara Kumari Varunapriya Adi Krithi
Sri Venugopaladeva Darbar Jhampa Krithi
Sukha Vazhve Kokilapriya Rupaka Krithi
Sukhakara Dhatuvardhini Adi Krithi
Sukhame sukham Shanmukhapriya Adi Krithi
Tandi mamukha Natta Adi Krithi
Thandarul ayya Nasikabhushani Misra Chapu Krithi
Tharuve nin arul Varali Misra Chapu Krithi
Ullam ariyada Sriranjini Adi Krithi
Unnaiyillal Simhendramadhyamam Adi Krithi
Va velava va Tanarupi Jhampa Krithi
Vaaranamukha va tunai Hamsadhwani Rupaka Krithi
Varnam tarum Jhankaradhwani Misra Chapu Krithi
Velaiya dayi Saveri Adi Krithi
Velanai vere gathi Subhapanthuvarali Misra Chapu Krithi
Velava va adiyen Arabhi Rupaka Krithi
Velave va Keeravani Jhampa Krithi
Velu mayilu me Sucharitra Rupaka Krithi
Viraraghava Gavambodhi Adi Krithi
Yedum ariyene Sahana Jhampa Krithi